Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) are epithelial cells located on the placental amnion near the fetus. Different from other placental-derived stem cells, hAECs are derived from embryonic epiblast, and have been considered as seed cells for regenerative medicine. hAECs possess embryonic stem cell-like multi-differentiation capabilities and adult stem cell-like immunomodulatory properties. Compared with other types of stem cells, special properties of hAECs make them unique, including easy isolation, abundant cell numbers, non-tumorigenicity after transplantation, and the obviation of ethical debates.
During the past two decades, the therapeutic potential of hAECs has been extensively investigated in various diseases. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that hAECs contribute to repairing and remodeling the function of damaged tissues and organs through different molecular mechanisms. This article provides an in-depth review of the biological characteristics of hAECs Genprice, summarizes the research status of hAECs, and discusses the clinical application prospects of hAEC-based cell therapy.
Isolation and feeder-free primary culture of four cell types from a single human skin sample
Four types of primary cells-dermal fibroblasts, dermal microvascular endothelial cells, epidermal keratinocytes, and epidermal melanocytes-can be isolated simultaneously from a single human skin sample, without the use of xenogeneic murine feeder cells. This protocol describes the procedures for isolation of these cells from adult full-thickness skin obtained from surgical discard tissue. The cells isolated using this protocol contain stem cell populations and are competent to form functional skin tissue in three-dimensional reconstructed skin models. For complete details on the use and execution of this profile, please refer to Supp et al. (2002), Boyce et al. (2015), Boyce et al. (2017a), Boyce et al. (2017b), and Supp et al. (2019).
Structural and optical properties of dysprosium doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and its bioimaging probe in human cells
In this work, the hydroxyapatite nanoparticle doped with trivalent dysprosium ions were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The characterization techniques like X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) were carried to determine the crystalline and structural properties. The Rietveld structural refinement of the XRD patterns confirmed the purity of the phase formation of the synthesized nanoparticles. The photoluminescence emission spectra exhibited intense emissions in the blue region at 450 nm and 476 nm along with less intense yellow emission at 573 nm which can be attributed to the magnetic dipole and electric dipole transitions of dysprosium respectively. In order to evaluate the color tunability of the emitted light CIE chromaticity coordinate values were calculated. The intense blue emissions from the synthesized sample were found to be favourable for bioimaging. The images obtained from the fluorescence microscopy revealed that the dysprosium doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are potential bioimaging probes in human cells.
Important role of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in the homing of systemically transplanted human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAD-MSCs) to ovaries in rats with chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian insufficiency (POI)
Chemotherapy can induce premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). POI causes multiple sequelae and is currently incurable. As shown in our previous studies, systemically transplanted human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAD-MSCs) home to ovaries with chemotherapy-induced POI and subsequently reduce ovarian injury and improve ovarian function in rats with POI. However, the cellular mechanisms that direct the migration and homing of hAD-MSCs to ovaries with chemotherapy-induced POI are incompletely understood. This study investigated the role of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in the migration and homing of systemically transplanted hAD-MSCs to ovaries with chemotherapy-induced POI and its relevant downstream signalling pathways.
CXCR4 expression in hAD-MSCs was assessed using Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. hAD-MSC migration was tested using Transwell migration assays. SDF-1 levels were detected using ELISA. Seventy-two female SD rats were randomly divided into the control, POI, hAD-MSCs and hAD-MSCs + AMD3100 groups. Cyclophosphamide was used to establish rat POI models. For inhibitor treatment, hAD-MSCs were pretreated with AMD3100 before transplantation. PKH26-labeled hAD-MSCs were injected into the tail vein of POI rats 24 h after chemotherapy. After hAD-MSC transplantation, the homing of hAD-MSCs to ovaries and ovarian function and pathological changes were examined. We further investigated the molecular mechanisms by detecting the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signalling pathways.
hAD-MSCs expressed CXCR4. SDF-1 induced hAD-MSC migration in vitro. SDF-1 levels in ovaries and serum were significantly increased in rats with chemotherapy-induced POI, and ovaries with POI induced the homing of hAD-MSCs expressing CXCR4. Blocking the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis with AMD3100 significantly reduced the number of hAD-MSCs homing to ovaries with POI and further reduced their efficacy in POI treatment. The binding of SDF-1 to CXCR4 activated the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway, and LY294002 significantly inhibited hAD-MSC migration induced by SDF-1 in vitro. Moreover, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway significantly reduced the number of systemically transplanted hAD-MSCs homing to chemotherapy-induced ovaries in rats with POI.
SDF-1/CXCR4 axis partially mediates the migration and homing of systemically transplanted hAD-MSCs to the ovaries of rats with chemotherapy-induced POI, and the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway might be involved in the migration and homing of hAD-MSCs mediated by the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.
Lichenysin Production by Bacillus licheniformis Food Isolates and Toxicity to Human Cells
Bacillus licheniformis can cause foodborne intoxication due to the production of the surfactant lichenysin. The aim of this study was to measure the production of lichenysin by food isolates of B. licheniformis in LB medium and skimmed milk and its cytotoxicity for intestinal cells. Out of 11 B. licheniformis isolates tested, most showed robust growth in high salt (1M NaCl), 4% ethanol, at 37 or 55°C, and aerobic and anaerobic conditions. All strains produced lichenysin (in varying amounts), but not all strains were hemolytic. Production of this stable compound by selected strains (high producers B4094 and B4123, and type strain DSM13 T ) was subsequently determined using LB medium and milk, at 37 and 55°C. Lichenysin production in LB broth and milk was not detected at cell densities < 5 log10 CFU/ml. The highest concentrations were found in the stationary phase of growth.
Total production of lichenysin was 4-20 times lower in milk than in LB broth (maximum 36 μg/ml), and ∼10 times lower in the biomass obtained from milk agar than LB agar. Under all conditions tested, strain B4094 consistently yielded the highest amounts. Besides strain variation and medium composition, temperature also had an effect on lichenysin production, with twofold lower amounts of lichenysin produced at 55°C than at 37°C. All three strains produced lichenysin A with varying acyl chain lengths (C11-C18). The relative abundance of the C14 variant was highest in milk and the C15 variant highest in LB.
The concentration of lichenysin needed to reduce cell viability by 50% (IC50) was 16.6 μg/ml for Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells and 16.8 μg/ml for pig ileum organoids. Taken together, the presence of low levels (<5 log10 CFU/ml) of B. licheniformis in foods is unlikely to pose a foodborne hazard related to lichenysin production. However, depending on the strain present, the composition, and storage condition of the food, a risk of foodborne intoxication may arise if growth to high levels is supported and such product is ingested.